Study 7/0 visualizes the positioning errors generated by a static GPS receiver.

I placed my Garmin GPSmap 60Cx on my desk (exact geolocation: North 44°49'0.11", East 20°27'13.81"), turned it on and left it there for 7 days, 7 hours, 16 minutes and 11 seconds (between 04:46:36PM on 7 July and 00:02:47AM on 15 July 2010).

While the ideal GPS plot for an immovable object is a single point, this setup had recorded 8438 different position points on a path 34.7 kilometers long, covering an area of 2.1km2 with average speed of 0.2km/h and maximum speed of 17.9km/h.

The path is a consequence of limited precision of commercial GPS receiver working inside a building and under changing weather conditions, combined with general GPS inaccuracy. With time-stamps, horizontal positions, altitudes and speeds at each trackpoint, the path constitutes a large dataset.

I animated the horizontal positions (longitude/latitude) over time, speeding up the 630,971 seconds of real-time record into watchable 281.26 seconds (4 minutes, 41 seconds and 8 frames at 30fps).

The first animation isolates the current 2.25% of the whole path, revealing the complex dynamics of error-generated motion. The second animation builds up into the complete path. Each animation displays all corresponding values from the dataset.

I have originally produced this path in Study project (2010), where I combined it with geopaths of the IP routes for the websites I had been accessing in that seven-day period.


2.25% (no sound)

2.25 over 100% (no sound)


The original path



Dejan Grba is a media artist, author and educator. His artistic investigation of the perceptive, cognitive and cultural factors of visual phenomenology is focused on constitution, representation and interpretation of the individual notion of reality.

He has exhibited and lectured at venues including ADM/NTU Singapore, ISEA Manizales and Hong Kong, SIVA Shanghai, ZKM Karlsruhe, IFA Berlin, GfZK Leipzig, Montevideo Amsterdam, MiP Vienna, CCN and <rotor> Graz, MoCA Novi Sad, MoCA and MST Belgrade.

He chairs New Media department at the Faculty of Fine Arts in Belgrade where he teaches Transmedia Research. He teaches Poetics of Digital Art seminar at Digital Art PhD program at University of the Arts in Belgrade. He was a guest professor with Computer Art program at the CVPA at Syracuse University, NY.